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Amanda Morgan at April 22, 2019 at 8:44am EDT
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The following idea will discuss and critique the article “Exploring Educational Psychologist’s Perceptions of the Use and Implications of Standardised Cognitive Assessment and IQ” written in 2013 by Alexandra Sewell and LJ Ducksbury. The writers’ intent is to analyze the background of educational psychology in relation to the use of standardized cognitive assessment (SCA) and intelligence quotient (IQ). Further, they investigate how perceptions of SCA and IQ were fashioned. Finally, one of the main purposes of the article is to highlight how these perceptions precipitate responses to the use of SCA, IQ, and the options available to educational psychologists. As earlier articulated, the main thrust of this article is the exploration of the processes of standardized cognitive assessment and intelligence quotient. Educational psychologists use these tools to assess children, fashion programs, and teaching practices consequent to the results obtained. However, the modern educational psychology (EP) discovers that some of their applied methods remain attributed to the foundations of the discipline – a basis established in England in 1913 by a man named Cyril Burt. His research and application, from the growth of child guidance clinics to the development of statistical techniques, are pioneering and fundamental to the EP discipline. Burt’s research, arguably, precipitated the formulation of contemporary IQ tests and SCA. In 1913, London County Council employed Burt to assess children thought incapable of profiting from regular education. It was this appointment that gave SCA and IQ the perception and legacy now associated with modern-day educational psychology. The role of the EP specialist today has seen a plethora of changes and practice. It is imperative to comprehend the impact SCA and IQ had on the development of educational psychology as applied science. Burt’s research and work, combined with the predominant psychological approach at the time, replicated an application founded on positivist notions. As of 1904, psychology encompassed an empirical approach and an obligation to uncover and empirically represent psychological phenomena. The categories of people such as “feeble-minded” in 1913 Mental Deficiency Act and the current “learning disability” show a proclivity to the typological thought. Consequently, the SCA and IQ methodology emanated from this philosophical framework. There has been a shift from the individual assessment to the emphasis on cultural influences on child development. The former (individual assessment) has evoked the response of being discredited due to its perceived association with Burt’s SCA and IQ. While his work was a watershed in the EP discipline, the EP role has expanded to include other theoretical paradigms, for instance, behavioral and ecological theories. The contemporary landscape calls for a multifaceted approach to solving psychological issues in EP. Options available to the EP practitioners feature an actualization of the stated methodology. The response (and consequent options) stem from the social constructionist view of knowledge as a process where reality is co-constructed through language and social interactions. Therefore, the psychological phenomena that IQ and SCA claim to test (for instance, spatial reasoning) are perceived as not being real (as a positivist stance would assert). They are the part of a vital whole, which educational psychologists can use to achieve educational and interpersonal objectives. The authors’ study uses a discursive analysis based on qualitative interviews conducted in December 2012. The goal was to identify how perceptions of SCA and IQ became molded and the responses that emanated as a result. Six practicing educational psychologists and a trainee (second year of the EP training) conducted the interviews. The participants or interviewees of the study stemmed from diverse local authority educational psychology services in the West Midlands, England. The participants were all volunteers. An email detailing a summary of the research, methodology, and the goals of the study has been sent to the respective local authorities. The interviews took 30 to 60 minutes in a location that was ideal for the participant. From the discursive analysis of the research process, it was clear that the participants perceived SCA and IQ as low in value, a “tool in the box”, and not as the means of providing definitive evidence. The study was also interested in confirming Burt’s EP work as a legacy. EP still uses SCA and IQ, but their use has been forced to adapt to contextual and cultural changes. Therefore, the impact of SCA and IQ on the field of educational psychology and Burt’s legacy depends on the different perception and constructions of SCA and IQ. The difference emanates from practitioners’ individual differences and meanings attached to the two tools. SCA and IQ are the tools used to evaluate abstract constructs. As such, they are plagued with the daunting task of prescribing psychological certainties to the real word problems. It is true that they cannot provide definitive evidence, but that does not eradicate their value. Their ability to guide the practitioner remains invaluable. While the article represents the views of a small demographic of educational psychologists, it illuminates the impact of perceptions. For instance, if IQ and SCA are held in high regard, there will be a grander incentive to develop SCA. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that the sway of constructions of IQ and SCA and the meanings attributed thereof affect the EP practice and the SCA effectiveness. The article remains relevant because it shows the influence of perceptions on the efficacy of the psychological tools. Further, the role of the EP is to aid solutions for “real” objectives and not to give absolutes. More my articles on https://specialessays.com/interview-essay-writing-service/.

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Elvis Young at April 22, 2019 at 5:43am EDT

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